Which Is Faster RISC Or CISC? (Explained)

Which Is Faster RISC Or CISC? Processor architecture, which includes instruction set architecture, is required for the development of machine-level programs that carry out any mathematical or logical operations.

An interface between hardware and software is provided by instruction set architecture. It gets the processor ready to carry out user-given actions like execution, deleting, etc.

The architecture of the processor’s instruction set determines how well it performs. Since a processor must function with both hardware and software, it can be difficult to determine which should be more important.

Major corporations like Intel argue that hardware should be more important than software in computing. Apple contends that processor architecture should be heavily influenced by software.

The two main architectures for instruction sets are:

  1. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing)
  2. RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing)

CISC Structure

Assembler language was used in the early days to program computers, and memory access is similarly slow. Compilers have to write lengthy sequences of machine code to do sophisticated arithmetic calculations.

This prompted the architects to create an architecture that accesses memory less frequently and places less strain on the compiler. This resulted in a complex but very powerful instruction set.

This design uses cache memory for holding both data and instructions. As a result, they go along the same path for both data and instructions.

The format of the CISC’s instructions might vary in length. As a result, the number of clock cycles needed to carry out the instructions can vary.

In CISC, a microprogram that has a series of microinstructions executes the instructions.

Check this Out Related here ====== >>>  The Best Budget Power Supply Series For Gaming PC (Explained)

Let’s look at an instance: You may calculate the sum of two numbers as follows.

ADD 1:1 , 2:2

  • The instruction that is being displayed above is broken up into smaller instructions.
  • It initially saves the data in two distinct registers, decodes, and then executes.
  • This outcome is kept in the MBR register.
  • The two registers were then automatically cleared after that.
  • An intricate circuitry is therefore needed to carry out all of these steps.

Benefits of the CISC Architecture

  • Microprogramming is substantially less expensive and easier to deploy than hard-wiring a control system.
  • The chip’s architecture makes it simple to add new commands without altering the way the instruction set is organized. This is because the architecture makes use of multipurpose hardware to execute commands.
  • This design effectively utilizes main memory since fewer instructions are needed to complete a given task due to the complexity (or greater capability) of the instructions.
  • Since the microprogram instruction sets can be constructed to match the syntax of high-level languages, the compiler need not be overly complex.

Drawbacks of CISC Architecture

  • Early-generation processors are a part of CISC processors’ subgroups in new or following versions (succeeding versions). As a result, each processor generation saw an increase in the complexity of the chip hardware and instruction set.
  • Because of the slower clock speed, the machine’s overall performance is decreased.
  • The intricate hardware and on-chip software used in CISC design to carry out a variety of tasks.

CISC processor examples include the IBM 370/168, Intel 80486, and VAX 11/780.

RISC architecture (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)

Although CISC uses less memory and a compiler, the more complicated hardware needed to implement the complex instructions makes it more expensive.

Check this Out Related here ====== >>>  i5 12400 or Ryzen5 5600 CPU which is Better For Gaming and it Development? (Explained)

The processor’s instruction set is condensed in RISC architecture to speed up execution. It uses a limited number of highly optimized instructions, most of which are register-to-register operations.

A reduced number of instructions is used, which speeds up the execution.

This executes any instruction using the pipeline mechanism.

The fetch, decode, and execute steps of instruction can all be completed by the processor at once thanks to the pipelining technique. 

In most cases, the second instruction’s execution doesn’t begin until the first one has finished. However, in a pipeline technique, multiple phases of each instruction are carried out concurrently.

The following instruction starts in the first stage when the first stage of the first instruction is finished. Until all of the instructions have been carried out, this process continues.

RISC processor examples

Alpha, AVR, ARM, PIC, PA-RISC, and power architecture are all included in this architecture.

Benefits of RISC architecture

  • Due to their streamlined instruction set, RISC computers frequently perform two to four times better than CISC processors.
  • Due to a smaller instruction set, this design requires less chip area. This allows for the placement of additional functions, such as memory management units and floating point arithmetic units, on the same chip.
  • This architecture makes use of smaller chips with more components on a single silicon wafer, lowering the cost per chip.
  • Because of their straightforward architecture, RISC computers can be developed more quickly than CISC CPUs.
  • When compared to CISC processors, RISC processors use more registers to hold and pass instructions, which results in a higher instruction execution rate.
Check this Out Related here ====== >>>  Can multi Core CPU’s truly multitask? (Explained)

Problems with RISC architecture

The code that is being executed determines how well a RISC processor performs. When a compiler does a bad job of scheduling instruction execution, the processor spends a lot of time waiting for the first instruction’s result before moving on to the next instruction.

To feed diverse instructions to RISC processors, very quick memory systems are needed. In most RISC-based systems, a sizable memory cache is often provided on the processor.

RISC and CISC comprised



Hardware is given significant weight in CISC architecture. Software is given more weight in RISC architecture.
intricate directions shortened instructions
it directly accesses memory It needs registers
The CISC processor has simple coding. More lines are needed for RISC processor coding.
To execute, several cycles are necessary. One cycle is required to complete.
The microprogram contains the complexity. Compiler complexity is the issue 

Related Article: 

How Fast is single GPU Core compared to CPU Core? (Explained)

Leave a Comment

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners. View more
Cookies settings
Privacy & Cookie policy
Privacy & Cookies policy
Cookie name Active
  Our website address is: https://discovercpu.com.


When visitors leave comments on the site we collect the data shown in the comments form, and also the visitor’s IP address and browser user agent string to help spam detection. An anonymized string created from your email address (also called a hash) may be provided to the Gravatar service to see if you are using it. The Gravatar service privacy policy is available here: https://automattic.com/privacy/. After approval of your comment, your profile picture is visible to the public in the context of your comment.


 If you upload images to the website, you should avoid uploading images with embedded location data (EXIF GPS) included. Visitors to the website can download and extract any location data from images on the website.


If you leave a comment on our site you may opt-in to saving your name, email address and website in cookies. These are for your convenience so that you do not have to fill in your details again when you leave another comment. These cookies will last for one year. If you visit our login page, we will set a temporary cookie to determine if your browser accepts cookies. This cookie contains no personal data and is discarded when you close your browser. When you log in, we will also set up several cookies to save your login information and your screen display choices. Login cookies last for two days, and screen options cookies last for a year. If you select "Remember Me", your login will persist for two weeks. If you log out of your account, the login cookies will be removed. If you edit or publish an article, an additional cookie will be saved in your browser. This cookie includes no personal data and simply indicates the post ID of the article you just edited. It expires after 1 day.

Embedded content from other websites

 Articles on this site may include embedded content (e.g. videos, images, articles, etc.). Embedded content from other websites behaves in the exact same way as if the visitor has visited the other website. These websites may collect data about you, use cookies, embed additional third-party tracking, and monitor your interaction with that embedded content, including tracking your interaction with the embedded content if you have an account and are logged in to that website.

Who we share your data with

 If you request a password reset, your IP address will be included in the reset email.

How long we retain your data

 If you leave a comment, the comment and its metadata are retained indefinitely. This is so we can recognize and approve any follow-up comments automatically instead of holding them in a moderation queue. For users that register on our website (if any), we also store the personal information they provide in their user profile. All users can see, edit, or delete their personal information at any time (except they cannot change their username). Website administrators can also see and edit that information.

What rights you have over your data

If you have an account on this site, or have left comments, you can request to receive an exported file of the personal data we hold about you, including any data you have provided to us. You can also request that we erase any personal data we hold about you. This does not include any data we are obliged to keep for administrative, legal, or security purposes.

Where your data is sent

 Visitor comments may be checked through an automated spam detection service.
Save settings
Cookies settings